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Heliophysics research and exploration aims to explore the Sun-Earth system to understand the Sun and its effects on Earth, the solar system, and the space environmental conditions that will be experienced by explorers, and to demonstrate technologies that can improve future operational systems.

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DivisionNameLaunch DatePhase
Heliophysics Equator-S
Equator-S was a German Space Agency project, with contributions from ESA and NASA, related to the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics program. The mission provided high-resolution plasma, magnetic, and electric field measurements in several regions not adequately covered by any of the ...
19971202 December 02, 1997 4Past
Heliophysics FAST
Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) studies the detailed plasma physics of the Earth's auroral regions. Ground support campaigns coordinate satellite measurements with ground observations of the Aurora Borealis, commonly referred to as the Northern Lights. The science instruments on board ...
19960821 August 21, 1996 4Past
Heliophysics IMAGE
IMAGE studied the global response of the magnetosphere to changes in the solar wind. Major changes occur to the configuration of the magnetosphere as a result of changes in and on the Sun, which in turn change the solar wind.
20000325 March 25, 2000 4Past
Heliophysics IMP-8
IMP 8 has deepened understanding of the space environment near Earth in many ways. Observations from IMP 8 provided insight into plasma physics, the Earth's magnetic field, the structure of the solar wind and the nature of cosmic rays.
19731026 October 26, 1973 4Past
Heliophysics ISEE
The ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) program was an international cooperative program between NASA and ESA to study the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere.
19780812 August 12, 1978 4Past
Heliophysics Polar
Polar is the second of two NASA spacecraft in the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative and part of the ISTP Project. GGS is designed to improve greatly the understanding of the flow of energy, mass and momentum in the solar-terrestrial ...
19960224 February 24, 1996 4Past
Heliophysics SAMPEX
The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer was investigating the composition of local interstellar matter and solar material and the transport of magnetospheric charged particles into the Earth's atmosphere.
19920703 July 03, 1992 4Past
Heliophysics SNOE
SNOE ("snowy") was a small satellite investigating the effects of energy from the Sun and from the magnetosphere on the density of nitric oxide in the Earth's upper atmosphere.
19980226 February 26, 1998 4Past
Heliophysics Spartan 201
Spartan was a small, Shuttle-launched and retrieved satellite. Spartan 201, whose mission was to study the Sun, has a science payload consisting of two telescopes: the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) and the White Light Coronagraph (WLC). Spartan 201 was launched ...
19940913 September 13, 1994 4Past
Heliophysics ST5
Space Technology 5 (ST5) flight tested its miniaturized satellites and innovative technologies in the harsh environment of Earth's magnetosphere.
20060322 March 22, 2006 4Past
Heliophysics TRACE
Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observed the effects of the emergence of magnetic flux from deep inside the Sun to the outer corona with high spatial and temporal resolution. This mission was part of SMD's Heliophysics Explorers program. This ...
19980401 April 01, 1998 4Past
Heliophysics Ulysses
The Ulysses Mission was the first spacecraft to explore interplanetary space at high solar latitudes, orbiting the Sun nearly perpendicular to the plane in which the planets orbit. This mission was part of SMD's Heliophysics Research program.
19901006 October 06, 1990 4Past
Heliophysics Yohkoh
Yohkoh, an observatory for studying X-rays and gamma-rays from the Sun, is a project of the Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences, Japan.
19910830 August 30, 1991 4Past